Exploring Psalm 110 in the Context of Christmas

by Hyacinth

Psalm 110 is a jewel among the Psalms, revered not only for its poetic beauty and theological depth but also for its profound Messianic implications. While traditionally not associated directly with the Christmas narrative as Psalms like 2, 72, and 89 are, Psalm 110 provides a rich backdrop against which the significance of Christmas can be explored.

Background and Context

Belonging to the category of royal psalms, Psalm 110 is attributed to David and is one of the most quoted and referenced passages in the New Testament. Its theme revolves around the exaltation and kingship of the Messiah, presenting a vivid portrayal of his authority and reign. This psalm is unique in its structure and content, blending elements of royal enthronement with priestly authority—a combination that finds its ultimate fulfillment in Jesus Christ.

Structure and Themes

Psalm 110 can be divided into three distinct sections, each revealing different facets of the Messiah’s identity and mission:

The Lord’s Declaration to the Messiah (verses 1-3): The psalm opens with a declaration from Yahweh to the Messiah, affirming his position at the right hand of God and granting him authority over his enemies. This section establishes the Messiah’s royal authority and the scope of his reign.

The Messiah as Eternal Priest-King (verses 4-7): The middle portion of the psalm shifts focus to the Messiah’s priestly role, drawing parallels to Melchizedek, an enigmatic figure in the Old Testament who combined the roles of king and priest (Genesis 14:18-20). This section emphasizes the eternal nature of the Messiah’s priesthood and his role in executing judgment among the nations.

Victory and Salvation (verses 5-7): The final verses highlight the Messiah’s victorious reign, portraying him as a conquering ruler who executes judgment and brings salvation to his people. This section underscores the Messiah’s authority to judge and his commitment to delivering his followers from oppression.

Messianic Interpretation

The New Testament authors frequently cite Psalm 110 as referring to Jesus Christ, recognizing him as the fulfillment of its prophetic imagery. The apostle Peter, in his sermon on the Day of Pentecost, quotes Psalm 110:1 to demonstrate Jesus’ exaltation and lordship (Acts 2:34-35). Similarly, the author of Hebrews extensively explores the psalm’s implications for Jesus’ role as both High Priest and King (Hebrews 5:5-10; 7:17, 21).

Psalm 110 and Christmas

While Psalm 110 does not narrate the events of Jesus’ birth, it provides essential theological foundations for understanding the significance of Christmas:

Pre-existence and Eternal Kingship: Psalm 110 portrays the Messiah’s pre-existence and eternal kingship, affirming that Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem was not the beginning of his reign but the earthly manifestation of his eternal kingship (Micah 5:2; John 1:1-3).

Divine Authority and Sovereignty: The psalm emphasizes the divine authority and sovereignty bestowed upon the Messiah by Yahweh, highlighting Jesus’ unique identity as both fully human and fully divine (John 1:14; Philippians 2:6-11).

Victory and Redemption: Psalm 110 foreshadows the Messiah’s ultimate victory over sin and death through his sacrificial death and resurrection, themes central to the Christmas story and the broader narrative of redemption (Matthew 1:21; Luke 2:10-11).

Theological Reflections

Psalm 110 invites us to reflect deeply on the mystery and majesty of Jesus Christ, whose birth we celebrate at Christmas. It underscores the unity of God’s plan throughout Scripture, from the promises made to David to the fulfillment in Jesus as the ultimate King and Priest. This unity highlights God’s faithfulness and his commitment to redeeming humanity through his Son.

SEE ALSO: Why We Celebrate Christmas on December 25th?

Practical Implications

Understanding Psalm 110 enriches our appreciation of Christmas in several practical ways:

Worship and Adoration: Christmas becomes an occasion not only for celebration but also for worship, as we acknowledge Jesus Christ as the exalted King and eternal High Priest.

Mission and Witness: The psalm challenges us to proclaim Jesus’ lordship and invite others to submit to his rule, recognizing that he alone has the authority to save and to judge.

Hope and Assurance: Psalm 110 assures us of Jesus’ ultimate victory over every adversary, offering hope and assurance in the midst of uncertainty and suffering.


Psalm 110 serves as a theological cornerstone, grounding our understanding of Christmas in the context of God’s eternal plan and the fulfillment found in Jesus Christ. As we reflect on its words and themes, we are drawn into a deeper appreciation of the incarnation—the moment when the Word became flesh and dwelt among us (John 1:14). Christmas, therefore, is not merely a historical event but a cosmic declaration of God’s love and redemption through his Son.

In celebrating Christmas, may Psalm 110 remind us of Jesus Christ’s exaltation, his priestly ministry, and his imminent return as King of kings and Lord of lords. Let us rejoice in the fulfillment of God’s promises and proclaim the good news of salvation to all nations, knowing that in Christ, all the promises of God find their “Yes” and “Amen” (2 Corinthians 1:20).

In conclusion, Psalm 110 enriches our understanding of Christmas by pointing us to Jesus Christ, the ultimate fulfillment of God’s plan of redemption and the embodiment of divine kingship and priestly authority. As we celebrate his birth, may we echo the psalmist’s proclamation: “The Lord says to my Lord: ‘Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool'” (Psalm 110:1 ESV).

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